Tag Archives: collaborative

Guest blog: Emergency surgery in patients with COVID-19

J Osorio, Z Madrazo, S Videla, B Sainz, A Rodríguez-González, A Campos, M Santamaría, A Pelegrina, C González-Serrano, A Aldeano, A Sarriugarte, C J Gómez-Díaz, D Ruiz-Luna, A García-Ruiz-de-Gordejuela, C Gómez-Gavara, M Gil-Barrionuevo, M Vila, A Clavell, B Campillo, L Millán, C Olona, S Sánchez-Cordero, R Medrano, C A López-Arévalo, N Pérez-Romero, E Artigau, M Calle, V Echenagusia, A Otero, C Tebe, N Pallares, S Biondo, COVID-CIR Collaborative Group Members of the COVID-CIR Collaborative Group

Emergency surgeons may find ourselves attending patients who are potential candidates for emergency surgery and have a COVID-19 infection, with or without evident symptoms. What should we do with these patients? 

The purely descriptive studies published to date show that these patients have a much higher than usual postoperative mortality. Considering these results, avoidance or postponement of surgery has been advised in COVID-positive patients.

However, postponing an emergency surgery may also have its risks. In each individual case, the risk of operating must be weighed against the risk of a non-surgical treatment. Therefore, it is very important to fully understand how and to what extent COVID-19 infection increases postoperative mortality.

Or in other words, is the high mortality observed in COVID-positive patients undergoing surgery entirely due to COVID-19 infection?

If we look closely at these descriptive non comparative studies, most of the COVID-positive patients were older than usual, with many underlying pathologies, and in poor general condition at the time of surgery. Could these factors, rather than the COVID-19 infection itself, explain their bad postoperative outcomes?

Additionally: During the lockdown, patients might have had fear or difficulty of going to the hospital and might therefore be diagnosed in a more advanced stage of their surgical pathologies. Moreover, the collapse of the pandemic could also cause hospitals to have difficulties in rescuing patients with postoperative complications.

If we can measure the true impact of these 3 factors involved (the patient’s context, the lockdown effect and the effect of hospital collapse) we will be able to assess how COVID-19 infection increases the mortality of patients undergoing emergency surgery. And that will allow us to make decisions based on evidence about whether, in each specific case, it is more reasonable to operate or to try not to do so.

The COVIDCIR project was born with the objective of answering that question. From the Bellvitge University Hospital, in Barcelona, we led a registry with 25 participating Spanish hospitals including all emergency general and gastrointestinal surgeries performed during the first wave of the pandemic (from March to June 2020) and during the same period of 2019 . More than 5,000 patients were included.

To assess the impact of COVID infection, we compared COVID-positive patients with COVID-negative patients operated on during the pandemic. This comparison was made using a statistical method called propensity-score matching, which consists of matching COVID-positive patients with COVID-negative controls of similar age, underlying pathologies and general condition at the time of surgery, thus achieving two comparable groups.

We observed that the mortality of these two matched comparable groups was not statistically different. Or, put another way, that the high mortality observed in COVID-infected patients undergoing surgery is more due to their age, underlying pathology and preoperative condition than to a hypothetical COVID risk-multiplier effect.

Thus, the fact that a patient is COVID-positive should not be seen as an absolute impediment to perform an emergency surgery. In each individual patient, the assessment of the risk of performing or postponing surgery should be based, as has always been done, on her or his individual anesthetic risk and its state at the time of diagnosis.

Second, to understand the effect of lockdown, to see if patients were diagnosed too late due to fear or difficulty in accessing, we compared surgical pathologies of COVID-negative patients operated on during the pandemic with those operated during the previous year. We saw that in the pandemic, patients did not present with more advanced peritonitis and that the inflammatory parameters of their laboratory tests were not higher. Thus, the increased mortality observed during the pandemic cannot be attributed to the effect of lockdown.

And finally, to understand the consequences of hospital collapse, we assessed what is called Failure to Rescue of patients: that is, what percentage of patients who present postoperative complications could not be rescued and died as a consequence of the complication. We compared Failure-to-Rescue of COVID-negative patients operated during the pandemic with those operated before the pandemic. Also on this occasion we carried out the propensity-score matching comparison, matching patients from both groups from the same hospital and of similar age, underlying pathologies and severity of surgical pathology.

We found that COVID-negative patients operated on during the COVID-19-pandemic had the same risk of postoperative complications, but a greater Failure-to-Rescue than before. This fact was evident in the 25 participating hospitals and is probably explained by the hospital collapse in the pandemic context.  

Visual abstract for COVIDHAREM appendicitis study

Guest blog: Antibiotics – not operations – to treat adult appendicitis?

By Hannah Javanmard-Emamghissi (@hannahjavanmard), NELA Research Fellow and RCSEng Research fellow on behalf of the COVID:HAREM Collaborative 

Keyhole surgery (laparoscopic appendicectomy) has been the mainstay of adult appendicitis treatment in Europe and the United States for the last several decades. In spite of this numerous trials have been ongoing exploring if there is a role for non-operative management of appendicitis with antibiotics. The APPAC and CODA trials both demonstrated that antibiotics were effective at treating simple appendicitis that was not perforated, gangrenous or associated with an abscess in the majority of patients.(1,2) However, it remained an underutilised treatment strategy. 

This all changed during February and March of 2020, when the Sars-COV-2 virus (COVID-29) swept across much of the globe. Healthcare providers were forced to make contingency plans for hospitals that faced being overwhelmed by patients infected with COVID-19. Much of the anaesthetic workforce had been redeployed to intensive cares and there was uncertainty of the safety of general anaesthesia for patients with peri-operative COVID-19 and of the safety of the theatre teams exposed to virus aerosols during laparoscopy.(3,4) Non-operative management strategies were implemented recommended by surgical professional bodies across many surgical disciplines as a way of mitigating for these uncertainties.(5)

Our collaborative’s report, just published in BJS, represents the first time non-operative management of appendicitis has been implemented on a wide scale in the United Kingdom. We collected data on patients over the age of 18 presenting during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute appendicitis, whether they were managed operatively and non-operatively. These patients were followed up for 90 days for length of hospital stay, complications, representation to hospital and appendicitis recurrence. Patients managed non-operatively were matched with similar patients managed operatively using propensity score matching, and their outcomes were compared.

Patients from 97 hospitals across the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland were included in our study. Three thousand four hundred and twenty patients were included, of which 41% had initially been treated with antibiotics. When they were matched using propensity score matching with similar patients who had non-operative management, the group treated with antibiotics spent less time in hospital and had fewer complications than those who had an operative management. Non-operative management was successful in 80% of the patients managed in this way, with 20% going on to have an appendicectomy in the 90 days after their first attendance. 

We also teamed up with a health economics team from the London School of Tropical Medicine to calculate the costs associated with each treatment method. We found that, even when accounting for the 20% of patients that had surgery within the 3 months of being treated with antibiotics, non-operative management was associated with a cost reduction of €1034 per patient compared to operative management. 

This study proves that antibiotics are an effective management strategy for appendicitis and can be utilised on a large scale beyond trials for the first time ever. Patients may be keen to avoid surgery for a number of reasons and going forward surgeons should incorporate a discussion about the risks, benefits and uncertainties of non-operative management into conversations they have with patients about appendicitis management options. Our results have shown how reducing the number of operations we do for appendicitis can have benefits for the patient in terms of complications and days in the hospital away from work and home, but it may have wider benefits to the hospital and world. Not only is non-operative management cheaper for the hospital, but reducing the number of appendicectomies performed can free up theatre time so the most urgent surgical emergencies have less delay accessing theatre. All operations are associated with a significant amount of carbon emissions and single use plastic waste, but despite our best efforts to reduce the harm that surgery can cause to the environment the most effective strategy remains reducing the amount of unnecessary surgery performed.(6)

That is not to say that the study of non-operative management of appendicitis is over, there is still debate about the long-term efficacy of antibiotic management and concern that some cancers of the appendix may be missed by not removing the appendix at the first presentation, as well as questions about how acceptable patients find non-operative management. Our collaborative hopes to answer these questions and more in a one year follow up study and ongoing patient and public involvement work. 

Conflicts of Interest 

None to declare 


No funding was received for this blog article 


1.        Salminen P, Tuominen R, Paajanen H, Rautio T, Nordström P, Aarnio M, et al. Five-year follow-up of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in the APPAC randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2018 Sep 25;320(12):1259–1265. 

2.        CODA Collaborative, Flum DR, Davidson GH, Monsell SE, Shapiro NL, Odom SR, et al. A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 12;383(20):1907-1919.

3.        Nepogodiev D, Bhangu A, Glasbey JC, Li E, Omar OM, Simoes JF, et al. Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study. Lancet [Internet]. 2020 Jul 4 [cited 2020 Nov 5];396(10243):27–38. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/

4.        SH E. Should we continue using laparoscopy amid the COVID-19 pandemic? Br J Surg [Internet]. 2020 Jul 1 [cited 2021 Sep 5];107(8):e240–1. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32432344/

5.        Hettiaratchy S, Deakin D. Guidance for surgeons working during the COVID-19 pandemic from the Surgical Royal Colleges of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Intercollegaite Royal Colleges of Surgery. London; 2020. 

6.        MacNeill AJ, Lillywhite R, Brown CJ. The impact of surgery on global climate: a carbon footprinting study of operating theatres in three health systems. Lancet Planetary Health [Internet]. 2017 Dec 1 [cited 2021 Sep 5];1(9):e381–8. Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/article/S2542519617301626/fulltext