Category Archives: BJS

Prioritising Surgical Treatment in Coronavirus Pandemic “Salford Score”

Prof Gordon Carlson CBE FRCS

Background

In light of the need to assess priorities of surgical treatment in a resource-limited environment, NHS England have set out clinical priorities for cancer surgery. However, these priorities do not take into account the vulnerability of the patient to excess morbidity and mortality in the event of Covid-19 infection. It seems evident that, particularly when undertaking elective surgery, the vulnerability of a patient to Covid-19 related morbidity and mortality might be equally important to considerations of the timing of surgery as the underlying disease for which surgery is proposed.

The resource allocation system currently in use at Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust (which has since been adopted throughout other hospitals at Northern care Alliance) takes both of these factors into account, by producing a score based upon the need to prioritise treatment on purely disease related grounds and also the vulnerability of the patient to Covid-19. The aim is to generate a score which can be used to determine the overall surgical treatment priority of a group of patients, possibly from different surgical subspecialties, when surgical resources have become limited as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The score allows different groups of surgeons and hospital management to objectively determine how temporarily limited resources might be allocated. It is meant to help guide collective discussions, not to be a rigid indicator of those patients for whom surgical treatment should be deferred, and it should be used to support, not to replace MDT discussions.

Cancer Surgery Priority

The NHS England Suggested Priority for Cancer surgery is summarised in table 1 below.

PriorityDescription
Priority level 1a• Emergency: operation needed within 24 hours to save life
Priority level 1b• Urgent:operation needed with 72 hours
Based on: urgent/emergency surgery for life threatening conditions such as obstruction, bleeding and regional and/or localised infection permanent injury/clinical harm from progression of conditions such as spinal cord compression
Priority level 2Elective surgery with the expectation of cure, prioritised according to:
• Surgery within 4 weeks to save life/progression of disease beyond operability.
Based on:urgency of symptoms, complications such as local compressive symptoms, biological priority (expected growth rate) of individual cancers

NB. Local complications may be temporarily controlled, for example with stents if surgery is deferred and /or interventional radiology.
Priority level 3Elective surgery can be delayed for 10-12weeks with no predicted negative outcome.
Table 1: NHS England Suggested Priority for Cancer surgery

However we could make resource allocation easier if we devised a simple, objective and consistent way of summarising the two variables which influence decision making – clinical treatment priority and risk of COVID-related adverse outcome, into one numerical score;

The “Salford Score” simplifies this to:

  • Priority 1a = score (P)1
  • Priority 1b = score (P)2
  • Priority 2 = score (P)3
  • Priority 3 = score (P)4

Vulnerability

A second component of this relates to vulnerability of the patient in case of a COVID infection (see table 2).

Vulnerability scoreOutcome in case of COVID infection
Vulnerability level 1• Unlikely to have excess mortality (compared to a completely fit individual < 70 years old) in the event of Covid infection
Vulnerability level 2• Likely to have significant excess mortality compared to a completely fit individual < 70 years old in the event of Covid-19 infection, but would ordinarily receive invasive ventilation in that eventuality
Vulnerability level 3• Extremely likely to succumb to Covid-19 infection and would not ordinarily receive invasive ventilation in that eventuality
Table 2: Vulnerability score

Salford Score

A resource allocation score of PxV, is then calculated so that a fit patient at high risk of imminent death of underlying disease (P1or 2) and unlikely to have excess Covid mortality (V1) would score 1 or 2 (and get urgent surgical treatment), whereas a patient with a non-immediately life threatening condition (P4) for which surgical treatment could be safely be delayed for 12 weeks and who would not, as a result of severe pre-existing medical comorbidity, be intubated etc. should they develop Covid and respiratory failure (V3) would score 12 and we would not proceed to offer surgery until the current resource position changes.

Guest post: Lessons in preparedness – the response to the COVID-19 pandemic by a surgical department in Singapore

Min-Hoe Chew1, Lester WL Ong1, Frederick H Koh1, Aven Ng1, YHA Tan1, Biauw-Chi Ong2

1 Department of General Surgery, Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore

2 Department of Anaesthesiology, Chairman Medical Board, Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore

Background

On 11th March 2020, World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. [1] Over 509,164 people have been infected worldwide with 23,335 deaths [2]. (case fatality-rate 4.6%)

The first imported case of COVID-19 in Singapore occurred on 23rd January 2020. [3] Local transmission was confirmed on 4th February 2020 and the Disease Outbreak Response System Condition (DORSCON) was raised (Orange) on 7th February 2020 [4-5]. As of 27th March 2020, there have been 732 cases in Singapore and 2 deaths. [6] Sengkang General Hospital (SKH) is a 1,400-bed hospital serving a population of 900,000. SKH confirmed its first case on 26th January 2020 and has managed 32 cases to date. [7] SKH Department of General Surgery (GS) has developed response measures to ensure all staff were ready to perform surgery for COVID-19 cases, reduce risks of nosocomial infection, and ensure continuity of care for patients. We describe the Preparation Phase in the initial outbreak, the Evolution Phase (DORSCON Orange), and Crisis Phase planning norms (DORSCON Red). [8-9]

Preparation Phase

Preparation Phasebegan before the first case was reported in Singapore. Cases were initially limited to China [10].  Information was limited; thus, planning was based on experience with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2002 [11-12]. A departmental task force was formed to enforce measures implemented by the hospital and develop knowledge specific workflows. Importantly, besides fever and upper respiratory tract symptoms, COVID-19 patients could mimic surgical conditions and have diarrhoea and abdominal pain [13-15].

Communication

The task force ensured accuracy of information disseminated. This suppressed falsehood from social media and maintained morale. This also allowed rapid and effective communication between junior and senior staff, and obtained feedback regarding policies.

Internal surveillance measures

Staff conducted twice daily temperature monitoring. Temperatures were entered into web-based forms via personal smartphones. All staff had Radiofrequency Identification tags facilitating contact tracing should there be exposure. Staff who developed symptoms were to only seek medical consultation within the hospital staff clinic. This enabled symptomatic staff to be identified promptly. 

Training and rehearsals

Hospital-wide refresher training on the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) was conducted. This included N95 mask fitting as well as training on Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) (CleanSpace® HALOTM, CleanSpace Technology Pty Ltd, Artarmon, NSW, Australia).

Business Continuity Plan (BCP)

The GS department split into two working teams. One team handled all inpatient services, which included emergency admissions, elective and emergency surgeries and ward rounds; the other team managed outpatient clinics and endoscopy procedures. Every seven days, teams would exchange duties.

The segregation of teams ensured that the department would remain functional should any team member fall ill. Under Singapore guidelines, close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases without adequate PPE, will serve a 14-day quarantine. [16] A seven-day cycle was appropriate in view of the reported mean incubation period of 5 days. [10]

Evolution phase

This BCP was executed when Singapore raised the DORSCON level (Orange) on 7th Feb 2020.

Elective and emergency surgeries

Non-urgent, non-cancer surgeries were postponed. Time-sensitive surgeries, such as cancer-related work and limb salvage procedures, could proceed. Surgeons performed elective surgeries during designated weeks.

Outpatient clinics and endoscopy

Outpatient clinic patient volume was reduced by 30%. Non-urgent endoscopy procedures were postponed. Patients attending appointments had temperature checks and performed declarations of travel history and symptoms. Ill patients were diverted to the Emergency Department (ED).

Operational demands

There was a spontaneous reduction in hospital attendances. ED admissions to the surgical department fell 11% (from a median of 156 per week) initially. (Figure 1) OR utility for surgeries reduced by 13% (from a median of 155 per week). (Figure 2) Median outpatient clinic attendances also decreased by 22% compared to the same period (1674 per week in 2019), without any hospital-initiated postponement. (Figure 3)

However, between the fifth and seventh week, the number of emergency admissions increased by 7 to 14% compared to the past year. OR utility returned to normal and outpatient clinic numbers surpassed previous year numbers by 24% in the seventh week.  This was likely due to increased public confidence in Singapore’s response. [17]

Team segregation was subsequently stopped for junior staff to meet manpower demands. Team segregation for senior staff continued.

Crisis Phase (Preparing for DORSCON Red)

In a Crisis phase, it would necessitate expansion of departments such as ED and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The objective of Crisis Phase planning was to facilitate manpower allocation while maintaining essential surgical capabilities. (Figure 4)

Key aspects of the Crisis Phase plan are:

  1. Reducing OR workload to allow anesthetists to support ICU
  2. Reducing outpatient clinic and endoscopy workload to free staff for deployment
Figure 4. DORSCON escalation planning norms for Department of General Surgery, Sengkang General Hospital

Discussion

The course for the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be protracted. [18] A surgical department must plan a stepwise reduction of elective work to allow for sustained deployment of manpower to frontline departments, and team segregation to allow for continuity of essential services.

The protection of healthcare staff is vital. Ng et al. reported 85% of 41 healthcare workers were exposed to a COVID-19 patient during an aerosol generating procedure [19]. None acquired the infection even though not all were in N95. Standard hand hygiene practices remain important.

Our department statistics provide a snapshot of Singapore’s health-seeking behaviors. Postponing elective surgeries did not reduce workload and more patients were admitted as emergency cases.

We acknowledge that we have had a very controlled increase in the number of COVID-19 cases; much of this is a result of a national strategy of rapid detection and isolation of cases and aggressive contact tracing. [20] Nonetheless, it is challenging to strike a balance between complacency and overreaction. Premature implementation of drastic measures can lead to staff burnout and resource wastage. Indecisive action however, may result in nosocomial spread and a loss of confidence in hospital leadership. The department has benefitted from the hindsight of the SARS outbreak in 2002.

Conclusion

In the COVID-19 pandemic battle, there are multiple considerations in how a surgical unit functions. Phases of Preparation, Evolution and Crisis will require hard decisions, strong leadership and decisive communication. A robust BCP is essential to ensure that surgical patients continue to have quality care.

References

1. Ghebreyesus TA. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).  WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – 11 March 2020. March 11, 2020. Available at:  https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19—11-march-2020. Accessed March 11, 2020.

2. WHO Coronavirus Situation Report 67. Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200327-sitrep-67-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=b65f68eb_4. Accessed 28th March, 2020.

3. Abdullah Z, Salamat H. Singapore confirms first case of Wuhan virus. January 23, 2020. Available at:  https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/wuhan-virus-pneumonia-singapore-confirms-first-case-12312860. Accessed March 14, 2020.

4. Ministry of Health, Singapore. Confirmed cases of local transmission of novel coronavirus infection in Singapore. February 4, 2020. Available at: https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/confirmed-cases-of-local-transmission-of-novel-coronavirus-infection-in-singapore. Accessed March 14, 2020.

5. Ministry of Health, Singapore. Risk assessment raised to DORSCON Orange. February 7, 2020. Available at: https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/risk-assessment-raised-to-dorscon-orange. Accessed March 15, 2020.

6. Ministry of Health Singapore Updates on COVID-19 Local situation. Available on: https://www.moh.gov.sg/covid-19. Accessed March 28, 2020.

7. Channelnewsasia. 4th confirmed case of Wuhan virus in Singapore: MOH. January 26, 2020. Available at:  https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/4th-confirmed-case-of-wuhan-pneumonia-virus-in-singapore-moh-12339912. Accessed March 14, 2020.

8. Yeo C, Kaushal S, Yeo D. Enteric involvement of coronaviruses: is faecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 possible? Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Apr;5(4):335-337.

9. Ministry of Health, Singapore. Ministry of Health Singapore pandemic readiness and response plan for influenza and other acute respiratory disaeses (revised April 2014). April, 2014. Available from: https://www.moh.gov.sg/docs/librariesprovider5/diseases-updates/interim-pandemic-plan-public-ver-_april-2014.pdf. Accessed on March 20, 2020.

10. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 29. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316. [Epub ahead of print]

11. Tan CC. SARS in Singapore–key lessons from an epidemic. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2006 May;35(5):345-9.

12. Chow KYLee CELing ML, et al. Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in a tertiary hospital in Singapore, linked to an index patient with atypical presentation: epidemiological study. BMJ. 2004 Jan 24;328(7433):195.

13. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395: 507-13.

14. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease, (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020 Feb 24. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648. [Epub ahead of print]

15. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan. China. Lancet 2020; 395: 497-506.

16. Ministry of Health, Singapore. Multiple lines of defence to guard against local spread of COVID-19. March 13, 2020. Available from: https://www.gov.sg/article/multiple-lines-of-defence-to-guard-against-local-spread. Accessed on March 22, 2020.

17. Ipsos. Singaporeans are confident in the Government amidst fears of the COVID-19 outbreak. March 16, 2020. Available from: https://www.ipsos.com/en-sg/singaporeans-are-confident-government-amidst-fears-covid-19-outbreak. Accessed on March 22, 2020.

18. Tan A. Covid-19 likely to last till end-2020 at least: Experts. March 9, 2020. Available from: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/coronavirus-covid-19-likely-to-last-till-end-2020-at-least-experts. Accessed on March 22, 2020.

19. Ng K, Poon BN, Kiat Puar TH, et al. COVID-19 and the risk to health care workers: a case report. Ann Intern Med 2020 Mar 16. Doi:10.7326/L20-0175 (Epub ahead of print)

20. Wong JEL, Leo YS, Tan CC. COVID-19 in Singapore-Current Experience: Critical Global Issues That Require Attention and Action. JAMA. 2020 Feb 20. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2467. [Epub ahead of print]

zebras

Bowel cancer is not just a disease of older people

A young surgeon’s experience as a patient with bowel cancer

If you ask any clinician, becoming a patient is an unusual experience. When you couple that with the naivety of youth, embracing the role of a patient is particularly challenging. 

“We are taught that we when we hear hoof beats, we should think horses, not zebras.”

As part of surgical training, and even in medical school, there are specific red flags that are taught to all of us. ‘Bowel habit change’ and ‘per rectal bleeding’ are not a great combination. We are also taught that we when we hear hoof beats, we should think horses, not zebras. So when I developed these symptoms I just assumed that I probably had a benign cause of bleeding. I assumed this for six weeks while I worked in a high volume liver and kidney transplant unit until I decided it was bothersome. I picked up the phone to one of my mentors, a colorectal surgeon. She subsequently performed my low anterior resection.

My story is different. I class myself as one of the lucky ones. I was aged 33, with no significant family history, only stage 3. I underwent a low anterior resection, fertility treatment and then 6 months of adjuvant FOLFOX. FOLFOX was not very kind. I didn’t require neoadjuvant radiotherapy, had clear margins and only 2 positive nodes. It is amazing how different your perspective is after such an unexpected life interruption. My life changed completely in one single moment.

From the beginning I called myself a lucky unlucky person. I had encountered young people with colorectal cancer in my surgical training, however, in clinics with 30-50 people being followed up in our public health system, it was still a rarity. When I was diagnosed in 2018 I only really began to appreciate the growing trend of young people being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. People that are not considered at risk. People under the age of 50. Where screening programs exist, all of these people would be too young to be screened. The age for screening in the United States has recently been lowered. It is still not practical for many reasons to extend population based screening to include those who are even younger. While the figures are alarming us all and steadily climbing, they still don’t meet criteria to support population based screening. 

“Becoming a patient reveals so much more about patient care and management.”

What is practical and even more alarming is these people’s stories. Bowel Cancer Australia and Bowel Cancer UK frequently highlight individuals who I never thought I would relate to. I am one of many in a long list of patients who are only too happy to tell their story in hope that someone might not have to go through and live with the effects of cancer. Becoming a patient reveals so much more about patient care and management. The anxiety relating to waiting, having scans, and to having your first operation as such a major one. The knowing too much, from the very beginning. After I was told that my surgeon found a cancer, I know I asked where it was. I meant anatomically. I asked this as I knew what the next investigations would be and what treatment (if I wasn’t metastatic) was being considered. It’s not a normal opening question from any other patient.  

It is really encouraging to see increasing attention being paid by researchers and surgical journal editors to the rising rate of colorectal cancer in young people, because it means that the message is being delivered regarding the need to investigate symptomatic people. This is separate to any screening argument. I have been part of the #Never2Young campaign and consider myself obliged to advocate for such awareness campaigns not only as a health professional, but as a colorectal cancer patient. I have become a statistic. I am one of those people diagnosed with a left sided colorectal cancer in the age group 20-49. 

Publishing real data and real stories and disseminating them will reach our communities and our clinicians working on the front line, trying to sort through who to investigate further or not. The message is becoming clearer for them now. Symptomatic people need investigating. I have seen firsthand only too many young people who have dismissed their own symptoms or had them dismissed by all levels of care. There are barriers to appropriate investigation with colonoscopy for many reasons. We need to make sure patients are better supported. 

Cancer does not discriminate.

I have completed treatment. I have had highs and lows within my surveillance already. I am lucky enough to have returned to work finishing my time in general surgical training. Navigating through life post treatment has days of uncertainty and sadness. I never stay sad too long. I constantly get reminders of just how lucky I am to still have this life that could have so easily been taken from me.

Cancer does not discriminate. It will choose anyone at any time. Anyone with symptoms needs to be investigated, as sometimes those hoof beats are actually zebras.

Katherine Goodall is a general surgical registrar from Queensland Australia